Christy: At First Weak, Timid
When we first meet Christy it is by way of report. He is presented as a tramp, “a kind of fellow above in the furzy ditch groaning wicked like a maddening dog”, or a “queer fellow above, going mad — “. When we first see him he is, according to the stage direction, a ‘slight young man – very fired and frightened and dirty’. The first impression we get is one of timidity and fear: in short he is a coward but not totally lacking in spirit. His retort to Michael’s accusation that maybe he is wanted for “robbing and stealing” is given with a flash of family pride: ”And I the son of a strong farmer”. He relaxes as the others convince him that he is in a house safe from the ‘polis’, and begins to respond to their interest in the curiosity about his origins. Was he the victim of bailiffs, agents, landlords; did he indulge in alchemy, marry three wives, fight “wars for Kruger”? Pegeen’s impatient “you did nothing at all” provokes the required confession: “I killed my poor father, Tuesday was a week”.
The “lie” Begins
He is now definitely to be feared and respected, simply by what he has said. The hero in Christy is about to emerge; he is ‘a lad with the sense of Solomon’: “the peelers is fearing him”, he ‘should be great terror when his temper’s roused’, brave enough to “face a foxy divil — on the flags of hell”, and to stand up to “the loosed khaki cut-throats, or the walkin dead”.
The “lie” Takes Effect
Christy can hardly believe his ears: “Well glory be to God!” is all he can exclaim at the character the others are building for him. When he is left alone with Pegeen who describes him as a “fine, handsome young fellow with a noble brow” his amazed reply is: “Is it me?”. She further likens him to Owen Roe O’Sullivan (Eoin Ruadh O’Suilleabhain) the greatest of the Kerry poets, ‘a fine fiery fellow with great rages’ and passions.
Synge’s Sympathy For The” Lie”
The local response to Christy’s appearance on the scene highlight for us the drabness of such rural living, where the imagination has been starved, and there is longing for some excitement. Behind the obvious comedy in this scene we see a certain pathos: Synge was most definitely not out of sympathy with such peasant people (After all he had forsaken his own kind for their company).
Christy Given Romantic Image
Pegeen’s mention of Eoin Ruadh O’Suilleabhain reveals much about her character: he was a rather rakish fellow, a womaniser and an eloquent poet. She wants excitement and is prepared to defy the ‘priesteen’ and the powers of Rome to get it. Maybe Christy is a re-incarnation of the poet – that is what she wants to believe. Self-deception it is but understandable in the circumstances. She and the others want a hero and Christy wants to be that hero.
So Christy has now progressed from tramp and coward to poetic hero, which brings us to the end of Act 1. By this stage it is obvious that Synge has created a mock-hero, a parody of the hero of Celtic epic literature.
Christy Settles in To His New Image
At the start of Act II Christy feels quite at home and would be prepared to remain here ‘his whole life talking out with swearing Christians – never a day’s work’. The emphasis is on talking rather than working. He is aware now that his talent is verbal with a licence to lie or, at best, to bend and decorate the truth.
Heroes Must Prove Themselves
His status as hero is confirmed at this point by the arrival of the local girls bearing gifts, and by the Widow Quin’s announcement that she has entered him ‘in the sports below for racing, leaping, pitching’. All heroes must be put to the test: it is a feature of the epic poem that the hero must prove his prowess and strength in epic combat. For Christy this is to be done in the more humble local sports.
Comedy In Parody
The girls get their reward for bringing presents when Christy once again tells the story of his homicide (‘da-slaying’). His new found confidence is reflected in the telling. Now we have mime to enhance the comic absurdity. There is even comedy in the “weapons” used; a chicken bone and mug replace the mighty weapons of the traditional hero.
Temporary Set Back For Christy
This comic episode ends with the return of Pegeen who bristles at the sight of other women, especially Widow Quin, making free and easy with her man. They are dismissed imperiously and Christy receives a verbal punishing for his vanity. “You’ll be shut of no jeopardy no place if you go talking with a pack wild girls”. This provokes a great outburst of self-pity from Christy which softens the heart of Pegeen, making her realise how lucky she is to have found a lad with “a mighty spirit in him and a gamy heart”.
Power Of The “Lie” Again
Once again she is under the spell of Christy’s poetry, its rhythms and imagery: “it’s a lonesome thing to be passing small towns with the lights shining sideways, when the night is down”, “ drawn to the cities where you’s hear a voice kissing and talking deep love in every shadow of the ditch”, “but I was lonesome all times, and born lonesome, I’m thinking as the moon of dawn”, “the way I’ll not be waking near you another dawn of the year till the two of us do arise to hope or judgement with the saints of God”.
Comedy Of Christy’s Victory’ Over Shawn
Christy is now given and opportunity to act the hero. Shawn Keogh, that representative of ‘respectability and conformity’, has to be confronted and humiliated. Our new hero enjoys inflicting this humiliation on Shawn Keogh: he himself had often suffered similarly at the hands of his own father. At the height of his heroic success Christy is suddenly brought back to earth with a bump when he sees “the walking spirit of my murdered da”, “that ghost of hell”.
Another Side To Christy By His Father
Ironically Christy in hiding has to suffer the humiliation of hearing his father sarcastically describe the real Christy:
“An ugly young streeler with a murderous gob”
“a dirty stuttering lout”
“a lier on walls, a talker of folly, a man you’d see stretched the half of the day in the brown ferns with his belly to the sun”.
“he’d be fooling over little birds – or making mugs at his own self in the bit of glass – – -“.
“if he seen a red petticoat coming swinging over the hill, he’d be off to hide in the sticks… “
“a poor fellow that would get drunk on the smell of a pint”
“the laughing joke of every female woman”
“the loony of Mahon’s”
This is not exactly the character reference that Christy would give and had given to himself! An interesting point to note, however, is that the father has a ‘power’ of words himself!
Christy Becomes ‘The Playboy’
Once again Synge deglamourises the peasant and his lifestyle, reality keeping a firm grip on fantasy. The cult of the hero needs to be exposed for what it is; gratuitous violence masquerading as bravery. (Synge was a pacifist and was appalled by the violence of his own day and the false image of Ireland and its people that was being manufactured to support political ideas). The Widow Quin dubs Christy sarcastically ‘the walking Playboy of the Western World’. Christy is now in the hands of the Widow Quin and she being the practical person she is cashes in on his fear of exposure. Since she cannot have him for herself she will demand a fee for his silence: ’give me a right of way I want, and a mountainy ram, and a load of dung at Michaelmas’. The Act ends with Christy half-reassured that he has bribed the Widow into silence, and off he goes to his greatest test as hero, indeed the traditional test of all heroes.
Christy: Proven Hero At Last without ‘Lies’
In Act III Christy successfully proves himself at the races winning all before him, so when he returns to the Shebeen in triumph he is master of all. There is no limit to his courage and confidence now.
Pegeen Abandons Herself To His Power
He quite overpowers Pegeen – the first time she has ever softened, she ‘the fright of seven townlands for my biting tongue’. He raises her to such a level of passion that she is prepared to abandon everything for this ‘raggle-taggle gipsy man’, who according to Father Reilly would ‘capsize the stars’. Pegeen becomes a ‘heathen daughter’ and renounces her engagement to Shawn Keogh ‘that quaking blackguard’. Christy obliges by chasing him off and Michael gives his approval and blessing to both Pegeen and Christy.
Fantasy is Finally Driven Out By Reality
At that point Christy’s final test begins. His father, ‘a raving maniac’, bursts in and attacks Christy with a stick. The spell, which had mesmerised them all, is suddenly broken. The hero becomes the victim who is to be sacrificed for the people. Pegeen dismisses Christy with ‘Quit off from this’. After he has chased his father outside and apparently killed him, he returns to find that the Widow Quin is the only one who still wants him. This he passionately rejects with the infamous line – ‘What’d I care if you brought me a drift of chosen females, standing in their shifts’ – (Cue: Riots!). He mistakenly thinks that the ‘killing’ will restore him to Pegeen’s favour but he soon learns that there is a world of difference between a ‘gallows story and a dirty deed’. Humiliation, as the women try to put petticoats on him, is followed by final rejection by Pegeen who places the rope on him. Shawn is triumphant, ‘Come on to the peelers till they stretch you now’. Respectability, self-interest – the usual social norms return. Christy now realises that he is finished here, his future is elsewhere and when his father comes back from the dead again, the two are re-united in a new relationship which makes them independent of the society that had made Christy into a hero and a poet. Like the bard of old he is destined for a higher, if lonelier, existence, one preferable to village respectability. ‘The thousand blessings upon all that’s here, for you’ve turned me a likely gaffer in the end of all, the way I’ll go romancing through a romping lifetime ….’
The Cuchulainn Parallel
One commentator on Synge, Declan Kiberd, in a very interesting book Synge and the Irish Language, sees a parallel between Christy and his story and the legend of Cuchulainn. He sees it as mock-heroic satire that the ‘Godlike Cuchulainn should re-appear in a feckless peasant’. For Pegeen Christy evokes the ancient world of the poet and its heroic virtues, ‘it’s the poets and your like, fine fiery fellows with great rages ‘; ‘You with a kind of quality name, the like of what you’d find on the great powers and potentates of France and Spain’; ‘the like of a King of Norway or the Eastern World’.
In youth Cuchulainn was athletic, handsome, articulate, attractive to women, a leader of men. Christy is the opposite, ‘cowering in a ditch’, ‘a lier on walls’, ‘a slight young man’, ‘a talker of folly’, ‘the laughing joke of every female woman’ – all of which is to change through the power of a lie.
Christy’s father tried to marry him off to the Widow Casey. The men of Ulster wished to marry off Cuchulainn to protect their own women from him. Cuchulainn is victorious using the sword of King Conchubair just as Christy is victorious in the borrowed clothes of Shawn Keogh. Cuchulainn woos Emer against her father’s wishes. Emer has another suitor just as Pegeen has Shawn Keogh. Both these suitors retire afraid of their opponents’ strength. Cuchulainn and Christy triumph at games and win their loved ones. Christy’s ‘great rages’ echo Cuchulainn’s great battle-rages. Cuchulainn meets the warrior druidess to advise and prepare him for his struggle; Christy meets the Widow Quin, who also advises for a ‘fee’.
Comedy And Satire In The Parody
But Synge’s purpose is to make a mock-hero of Christy, probably a response on his part to the determined efforts of his contemporaries to manufacture super-peasants for a political ideal. The only relic of the real hero left is the ‘gift of the gab’ upon which Christy is solely dependent. The ancient hero is reincarnated in a ‘feckless peasant’ struggling to escape the grinding poverty and dullness of life in the West of Ireland. For Synge there is no glamour in such harsh reality but a little fantasy can bring humour and escape, if only temporarily, so that not only Christy but the people of Mayo can go ‘romancing’, he for ‘a romping lifetime’, they for a few days at least.
At First, Realistic and Strong
Like all the other villagers Pegeen is trapped by rural convention which declares self-interest and respectability to be the social norms. It is ironic that when we first meet her she is preparing for her marriage to Shawn Keogh who most typifies this self-interest and respectability. She is going to make the best of the world she finds herself in. From the start we can see that she is strong-willed and dominant.
She has no love for Shawn Keogh whom she addresses contemptuously as Shawneen. Indeed she laments the lack of eligible and romantic young men in the district which can only boast of such as “Red Linahan, has a squint in his eye, the Patcheen has a limp in his heel, or the mad Mulrannies …” Her idea of a man is one who has the courage to break the law and tell stories of Holy Ireland – a Daneen Sullivan or masrcus Qwuin. The absence of any romance in her life and the absence of any fire or passion in Shawn Keogh are facts that she had had to live with and, God help her, will have to continue to live with fore the future. She is hard-headed enough, however, to accept Shawn as a poor substitutue for a real husband but he is better than no man at all.
Character of a Heroine
So the first part of Act I establishes her strength of character and her spirit: she can handle all the men, from her father, Michael, to Shawn Keogh. She has no fear of authority, ecclesiastical or civil: ‘Stop tormenting me with Father Reilly’ she sneers at Shawn, and ‘Daneen Sullivan knocked the eye from a peeler’ shows her admiration for one with courage enough to stand up to and get the better of authority.
First Meeting With Christy: Contempt Turns to Admiration
Into such a world ruled by self-interest and respectability stumbles Christy, young, tired and frightened. Their interest is immediately aroused (a ‘strainseir’ is always an object of great curiosity in an Irish village.) Pegeen’s contempt for men is still evident when she contemptuously challenges Christy: ‘You did nothing at all’, ‘Would you have me knock the head of you with the butt of the broom?’ Christy’s confession that he had killed his ‘poor father’ for striking him takes her aback. Suddenly her attitude changes: here is a man at last, another Daneen Sullivan or Marcus Quin, who has had the courage to challenge and overcome authority by killing his father.
Pegeen Falls Under Spell of The ‘Lie’: Romance Stirs
Christy’s ‘lie’ begins to work its magic on them all except Shawn Keogh (he isn’t the type that needs some excitement in life so he remains outside the spell). This gauche, (awkward), young man is beginning to appear as a potential knight-in-shining-armour or hero come to snatch her from the jaws of her fate. So, unwittingly she becomes an agent in the build-up of Christy into something larger than life. Fantasy is at work. The strong-willed, sharp-tongued young woman begins to melt as romance at last enters her life. All thoughts of self-interest and respectability are abandoned as she loses her head to the stranger.
Pegeen’s Jealousy Evident
It is ironic that Christy is affected differently at first: at the end of Act I and the start of Act II he relishes the new found respectability and comfort. But this isn’t allowed top last for long. Pegeen’s jealousy temporarily breaks the spell when she finds other women tampering with Christy, and she sadistically enjoys his terror at her mention of him ‘swaying and swiggling at the butt of a rope – in great anguish, getting your death’.
Romance Continues To Hold Her
The spell re-establishes its hold over her when Christy responds with his self-pitying yet unwittingly passionate poetry: ‘it’s a lonesome thing to be passing small towns’ – ‘the cities where you’d hear a voice kissing and talking deep love in every shadow of the ditch’. She even further builds up his character, attributing to him ‘a mighty spirit and a gamy heart’, which he shortly afterwards displays before the Widow Quin and Shawn Keogh when the latter comes to bribe him to leave. ‘For what is it you’re wanting to get shut of me?’ he arrogantly asks Shawn. Pegeen is not present to see Christy’s cringing reaction top the appearance of his ‘murdered da’. This must give Christy the necessary, if subconscious, incentive to prove himself at the sports to consolidate his position with Pegeen.
Pegeen Abandons Herself To New Christy
After his successes at the sports Christy returns to the Shebeen with Pegeen positively aglow with admiration and love. In the love sequence that follows she abandons herself completely to Christy’s verbal hypnosis. She can hardly believe her own ears when she speaks, ‘And to think its me talking sweetly …. Well, the heart’s a wonder – there won’t be our like in Mayo for gallant lovers….’ Even the dispensation ‘in gallous Latin’ can’t dissuade her now – she belongs to the ‘young gaffer who’d capsize the stars’ and who indeed had capsized her world. To her father she is a ‘heathen daughter’. In her ecstasy she really enjoys humiliating Shawn Keogh and when Christy chases him out she passionately announces to her father: ‘Bless us now, for I swear to God I’ll wed him, and I’ll not renege’.
Pegeen: The Woman Scorned
With the re-entry of Old Mahon and his claim that all Christy had given him was a ‘tap of a loy’, suddenly Pegeen snaps out of her trance and turns impetuously on Christy, ‘And it’s lies you told, letting on you had him slitted, and you nothing at all’. Her pride has been hurt and she feels publicly humiliated and in her rage she abandons him to fate. ‘Take him on from this or I’ll set the young lads to destroy him here’.
Fantasy At The End
Ironically she does not realise that she has just provided Christy with his greatest opportunity yet to prove himself a hero. Old Mahon’s ‘dying’ yell finally dispels that last trace of fantasy. Reality returns: the villagers are one again against the intruder that would bring the law and trouble to them.
Pegeen: Tragic Figure
Pegeen must lead in purging the community of this menace and to her eternal shame she realises too late what she had done: she has freed Christy from any last ties that would have impeded his progress ‘to the stars’. He doesn’t need her now, whereas she does need him, but she has lost and he has won. She is indeed almost the tragic heroine at this stage; the Dido deserted by her Aeneas.
Note: The character of Pegeen is said to have many of the qualities of Molly Allgood (Maire O’Neill), Synge’s fiancée, with whom he had a rather tempestuous relationship. She played the part of Pegeen in the first production and, like her, was independent and wayward, temperamental and warm-hearted, restless and very ambitious, and in the end lost her Playboy to death.
THE WIDOW QUIN
The Widow Quin (Is there a Newcastle West connection?!) is presented as a worldly, materialistic woman whose life is governed by shrewd opportunism rather than passion. Though she does put her eye on Christy it is not passion but rather self-interest that motivates her. She has ‘buried her children and destroyed her man’ and has few illusions left about life. She is the least affected by the spell of Christy’s charisma, except for Shawn Keogh of course, who is deaf to the magic of Christy’s words. For a short while she does fancy herself as a rival to Pegeen, and the only ‘fault’ in her character is that she underestimates the strength of Christy’s love for Pegeen, it is a love to which she could never aspire.
Fit Rival To Pegeen
When we meet her first she is obviously someone to be reckoned with: Pegeen bristles at her entry and feels threatened. Whereas any of the men in the play would have been easily subdued with a few sharp words from Pegeen, the Widow is impervious to her scorn. Though Pegeen does best her in their first encounter, the Widow doesn’t leave without a good parting shot that unsettles Pegeen, reminding her in Christy’s presence of her engagement to Shawn Keogh.
Widow As Comic Agent
When we meet her she has Christy to herself with the chorus of village girls. With a few direct personal questions she has found out from him all about his background, his father, and the reason for the ‘gallous deed’. Her comic sense encourages Christy to tell his story this time with mime, which puts them all into such good humour that Susan and Sara suggest that he would make a fine second husband for the Widow Quin.
Further Challenge to Pegeen
The comedy abruptly ends when a jealous and frosty-faced Pegeen enters. Once again as she leaves the Widow Quin has another fine parting shot for Pegeen as she reminds Christy that she, the Widow Quin, and not Pegeen had thought of entering him for the sports. She certainly has the ability to bring out the worst in Pegeen!
A Woman of Action: Understands Human Nature
She deals with the three principal male characters in one short period: she barters with Shawn Keogh for her services in rescuing Pegeen from Christy, she flatters Christy, and then she coaxes Old Mahon into leaving but not before getting information about Christy from him. This episode shows what an important role she has in the play: her main function is to initiate action and to keep it going.
- Her threat to take Christy spurs Pegeen into action thus declaring her interest in Christy.
- She enters Christy for the sports thus giving him the opportunity to prove himself a hero.
- She controls Old Mahon thus keeping the action going as she wants it.
- She manipulates Shawn Keogh which results in Christy looking a fine fellow, and she better off with his bribes.
- She again sends Old Mahon off as Christy hasn’t yet been fully established as hero.
- When Christy is finally exposed it is she alone who tries to save him from the anger of the village men and Pegeen, and this is ironic considering her reputation for being self-centred and heartless.
Widow has her Good Points
When Christy describes the Widow Casey in such horrific terms with her ‘limping leg’ and ‘blinded eye’ and her ‘noted misbehaviour’; she is ‘a hag with a tongue on her has the crows and seabirds scattered’, the Widow Quin seems positively angelic by comparison. Earlier Christy had remarked on the ‘two fine women fighting for the likes of me’. So the Widow Quin is a very presentable-looking woman even though her character is assassinated by the jealous Pegeen who slanders her with rearing ‘a black ram at her breast’ and ‘shaving the foxy skipper from France for a threepenny bit’. Never does the Widow’s language take on the venomous tone and brutal imagery of Pegeen’s, though she can hurt when she wants to: Pegeen she says is ‘a girl you’d see itching and scratching – with a stale stink of poteen on her’. In a way she is proved right in the end – Pegeen is not fit company for the new Christy, and it is Pegeen, not the resourceful Widow, who will tragically weep at his departure.