It has been suggested that Dickens, the social crusader, outdoes Dickens the novelist. Discuss with apt reference from the text of Hard Times. Discuss.
Dickens is rightly regarded as a crusader against injustice; all his novels are concerned with one or more of the defects of society as a whole or of the individual human being. ‘Hard Times’ is a case in point. There is a formidable list of points raised in this novel to suggest that Dickens is attacking various aspects of society or the attitudes of individual human beings to particular groups of their fellow men.
In his opening chapters, there is a clear criticism of the educational system that encourages or permits little children to be treated as receptacles for Facts poured into their heads and forbids or discourages the exercise of their imagination. He refers to the children as ‘little vessels’ ready to have gallons of facts poured into them until they were full to the brim. With this, he associates the process of depersonalisation that is carried into the factory. At school Sissy Jupe ceases to be a person; she becomes ‘Girl Number Twenty’. In the factory, Stephen Blackpool, like his co-workers, is merely one of the depersonalised ‘Hands’. In the confrontation between him and Bounderby in the chapter ‘Men and Masters’, Dickens puts words into Stephen’s mouth that show that the greatest grievance of the working class is that the employers look on them as so much power and treat them as figures in a sum, without feelings or souls. Dickens makes the point himself when he shows that even Louisa when she visits Stephen to offer him help, realises that she has never thought of the working class as individuals, but by hundreds and by thousands – as ants and beetles.
Dickens, however, may not be attacking merely the upper middle class but also the attitude of people to their fellow men. M’Choakumchild and Bounderby may not be upholding a system, but may be merely indifferent to the children and the workers – or perhaps being merely selfish: ignorant workers are less likely to be troublesome than educated ones. To support the argument that Dickens is attacking the attitude of individuals to their fellow men, Dickens has created Slackbridge, the Trade Unionist who is painted as a rather dangerous demagogue who attacks the oppressors of the working class while himself hounding one of his fellow workers. Dickens’s intentions are clear: he condemns Slackbridge by his description of him; he is less honest, less manly, less good-humoured than the workers he addresses. He is cunning rather than simple, and his words are ‘froth and fume’. In his condemnation of Stephen as a thief, he places himself alongside Bounderby who, like him, finds Stephen guilty without evidence or without trial.
Dickens also attacks theoretical political economy, (or the economic system based on self-interest). He ironically points out the inhuman aspect of the theory of political economy through Sissy who considers the first principle of this science to be ‘to do unto others as I would that they should do unto me’, and who cannot say whether a nation is prosperous or not until she knows who gets the money. Statistics, to her, are ‘stutterings’ and percentages cannot be applied to people. (There are often echoes of this in our day: the ideal family is said to consist of 2.4 children!) To support her, Dickens shows the Circus people as a closely-knit, interdependent people who, besides relying on one another in the Ring, have an untiring readiness to help and pity one another. They are outside the Utilitarian system and are a living criticism of it.
It is clear therefore that Dickens carries the crusader’s banner. However, this is not to say that this aspect of his work outdoes his importance as a novelist. (You are free to argue otherwise if you wish.) He was not just a reformer or a sentimentalist. His genius lay in his ability to create a world. He tells a story peopled by characters – good and bad. The good ones, like Sissy and Rachael, may not be totally acceptable to modern readers because the cynical twentieth-century cannot accept a human being who never has an impulse to be ungenerous; the bad ones are nasty and always acceptable. Dickens, with his brilliant use of imagery, makes them real: Bounderby, the Bully of Humility, the bag of wind who is deflated (temporarily) by the revelation of his real origins; Harthouse, with his vicious assumption of honesty in dishonesty who is finally overcome by one whose only weapons are virtue and a complete lack of sophistication.
In between these are the more credible characters. Louisa and Tom are victims of a stifling and cruel educational system. Our reactions are perhaps of pity rather than rage at the system. Bitzer, too, evolves from it; he is a victim rather than a villain. He rejects Gradgrind’s bribe to free Tom, not because he is heartless or cruel, but that he is the perfect product of his education. The test of the success of a novel is the reader’s response to the characters depicted. So, if one rages at Bounderby and Mrs Sparsit and gloats over their exposure; if one is pleased that the Circus Folk, who are natural enemies of the utilitarian system, overcome Bitzer; if one suffers with Louisa and hopes that Gradgrind will mellow, then the novel is, for that reader, a novel, not an attack on a political system.
Even though he laughs ‘with a touch of anger in his laughter’ Dickens makes us laugh at the boy who would not paper a room with representations because he would not paper a room at all, he would paint it. We laugh at the Circus Folk and the idiocy of Mrs Gradgrind. Such things are above and beyond a social documentary. Perhaps if he seems to over-emphasise certain points by repetition e.g. ‘No little Gradgrind…’ it is primarily to elicit sympathy for his good characters or to make us condemn his villains.
He may be over-anxious to point to the flaws in society as he is when he interpolates his own views directly, but he reflects his own age, his own life and his own thinking.
Whereas Bounderby is incapable of change and ends as he began, a monster of Utilitarianism, Gradgrind learns from experience, and when he changes it is for the better. Discuss.
This statement is true for a number of reasons. Bounderby is incapable of change, largely because he is a caricature. Gradgrind is forced to change and ends the novel a sadder and wiser man.
Bounderby is the quintessential ‘self-made man’. He is inflated like a balloon – full of wind. He is the villain of the novel. Dickens ensures that we abhor this ‘Bully of Humility’. He is physically repellent and he has an obnoxious manner. His ‘humility’ is false. He is a liar. He exploits his employees. To him they are mere ‘Hands’. His attitude to Stephen is disgraceful when he asks for advice on getting a divorce and later he tries to exploit him further. When Stephen refuses to co-operate he is sacked and when money is stolen from his bank he accuses Stephen and puts a price on his head.
Bounderby, the industrialist, is indeed a monster. He is aided and abetted in his efforts by his friend Thomas Gradgrind MP Dickens savagely attacks this attitude which puts profit before all other considerations. Indeed it can be said that both these men have much in common. They are intimate friends and desire to be closer through the marriage of Louisa to Bounderby. They are both pompous, self-opinionated and insensitive to the feelings of others. Gradgrind worries about Bounderby’s disapproval, ‘What would Mr. Bounderby say?’ However, there are also serious differences between these two men. Foremost among these is the fact that Gradgrind is not a hypocrite. He does act in good faith. He thinks that Thomas and Louisa are getting the best education. By the end of this novel he acknowledges the failure of his system and takes responsibility for it, ‘I only entreat you to believe, my favourite child, that I have meant to do right.’
Dickens ensures that Bounderby is caricatured as a comical ‘Mr. Pickwick’ figure and he is cruelly exposed at the end of the novel. He behaves very badly in Book III when Gradgrind is confronted. He is seen to be crude and intolerant. He acts the Bully to the end whereas Gradgrind is patient, submissive and humble. Bounderby’s end is ignominious – he makes a vainglorious will, he dies in a fit, and his estate is whittled away by the courts. He has no redeeming qualities.
It must be emphasised that Gradgrind, too, is a monster of utilitarianism and he indeed is the chief apostle and promoter of this rather inhuman political philosophy. He, too, is the focus of attack by Dickens. He puts his faith in statistics and in the ‘enlightened self-interest’ proposed by the evangelists of Utilitarianism – Adam Smith and Thomas Malthus. (Two of his sons are called Adam and Thomas!) He is shown to be a man of ‘realities’, of ‘fact and calculations’. We first see him in the Model School. His aim is to prepare his pupils for a mechanical world – his graduates are robotic creatures devoid of sympathy, love or imagination. He raises his five children (two daughters and three sons) by these rigid principles. They grow up on a diet of ‘-ologies’. He becomes a leading MP in the ‘party of weights and measures’ – one of the Hard Fact men. He is an ’eminently practical man’.
However, he is not all bad – he has virtues such as courage, honesty and charity. He takes in Sissy despite Bounderby’s protestations. He is forced to admit the failure of his system with Louisa and Tom. By the end of the novel, his world, so carefully built, is collapsing around him. He is pained by Louisa especially since he agreed to the marriage and he proved by statistics how successful it should be. Ironically, he is the one who introduces Harthouse to Louisa and Bounderby, thereby destroying the marriage he had done so much to promote.
Gradgrind, therefore, unlike Bounderby is capable of change and development. He is forced to face unwelcome facts (!). He is no longer certain. He is a humbled man: ‘The ground on which I stand has ceased to be solid under my feet. The only support on which I leaned …. has given way in an instant.’ The Gradgrind we see in Book III is hardly recognisable. He has abandoned his philosophy of facts and becomes a caring father to his children. This change comes and he is saved when Stephen dies and he realises that Tom is the bank robber. He seeks help from Sleary. He pleads emotionally with Bitzer to have ‘mercy and pity’. He acts to clear Stephen’s name. He realises that Sissy – the great ‘failure’ of his system – is now indispensable to his household. His younger children will be spared the worst effects of his system. (Isn’t this always the case?!!). Dickens is at pains to show how disastrous this system is but he is also at pains to point out that Gradgrind and the other promoters of the system were not evil – they were often caring and well-intentioned, even. At the end – in the future – we see him ‘converted’ as he makes his facts and figures subservient to Faith, Hope and Charity.
Gradgrind, now, unlike Bounderby, is a much sadder, wiser man. He now knows the meaning of love. He realises that there is a ‘Wisdom of the Heart’ as well as a ‘Wisdom of the Head’. He benefits in the end from a form of ‘poetic irony’ in that his early isolated act of kindness to Sissy proves to be the means of his redemption. He has changed for the better while poor Bounderby, our other monster, is cruelly depicted as a ‘Noodle’!